This is in connection to the topic of Using Kubernetes with Juju. See that page for background information.
This tutorial will demonstrate the use of the ‘aws-integrator’ charm with the AWS cloud to make Kubernetes dynamic persistent volumes (PVs) available for use with Kubernetes-specific charms.
The following prerequisites are assumed as a starting point for this tutorial:
- You’re using Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
v.2.5.0is installed. See the Installing Juju page.
- A credential for the ‘aws’ cloud has been added to Juju. See the Using Amazon AWS with Juju page.
- Sufficient permissions are assigned to the above credential in order for ‘aws-integrator’ to perform operations (see Permissions Requirements; this tutorial assigns the IAM security policy of ‘AdministratorAccess’).
Let’s begin by creating a controller. We’ll call it ‘aws-k8s’:
juju bootstrap aws aws-k8s
We’ll deploy Kubernetes using the ‘kubernetes-core’ bundle, which will give us a minimalist cluster. We’ll add the integrator charm to the mix by means of an overlay bundle that we’ll store in file
applications: aws-integrator: charm: cs:~containers/aws-integrator num_units: 1 relations: - ['aws-integrator', 'kubernetes-master'] - ['aws-integrator', 'kubernetes-worker']
See Overlay bundles for details on overlays.
We can now deploy the cluster like so:
juju deploy kubernetes-core --overlay k8s-aws-overlay.yaml juju trust aws-integrator
trust command grants ‘aws-integrator’ access to the credential used in the
bootstrap command. This charm acts as a proxy for the Juju machines, acting as Kubernetes nodes, to create and attach dynamic storage volumes in the AWS backing cloud.
When using a managed Kubernetes service like Azure’s AKS or Google’s GKE, using an integrator charm is not required. These Kubernetes clusters have storage built in.
It will take about ten minutes to arrive at a stable
status command output:
Model Controller Cloud/Region Version SLA Timestamp default aws-k8s aws/us-east-1 2.5.0 unsupported 03:28:12Z App Version Status Scale Charm Store Rev OS Notes aws-integrator 1.15.71 active 1 aws-integrator jujucharms 8 ubuntu easyrsa 3.0.1 active 1 easyrsa jujucharms 195 ubuntu etcd 3.2.10 active 1 etcd jujucharms 338 ubuntu flannel 0.10.0 active 2 flannel jujucharms 351 ubuntu kubernetes-master 1.13.2 active 1 kubernetes-master jujucharms 542 ubuntu exposed kubernetes-worker 1.13.2 active 1 kubernetes-worker jujucharms 398 ubuntu exposed Unit Workload Agent Machine Public address Ports Message aws-integrator/0* active idle 0 184.108.40.206 ready easyrsa/0* active idle 0/lxd/0 10.57.10.22 Certificate Authority connected. etcd/0* active idle 0 220.127.116.11 2379/tcp Healthy with 1 known peer kubernetes-master/0* active idle 0 18.104.22.168 6443/tcp Kubernetes master running. flannel/1 active idle 22.214.171.124 Flannel subnet 10.1.101.1/24 kubernetes-worker/0* active idle 1 126.96.36.199 80/tcp,443/tcp Kubernetes worker running. flannel/0* active idle 188.8.131.52 Flannel subnet 10.1.11.1/24 Machine State DNS Inst id Series AZ Message 0 started 184.108.40.206 i-06b046ea0ade98e9c bionic us-east-1a running 0/lxd/0 started 10.57.10.22 juju-06e5d4-0-lxd-0 bionic us-east-1a Container started 1 started 220.127.116.11 i-04c67dc1d633c2794 bionic us-east-1b running
Adding the cluster to Juju
We’ll now copy over the cluster’s main configuration file and then use the
add-k8s command to add the cluster to Juju’s list of known clouds. Here, we arbitrarily call the new cloud ‘k8s-cloud’:
mkdir ~/.kube juju scp kubernetes-master/0:config ~/.kube/config juju add-k8s k8s-cloud
The success of this operation can be confirmed by running
Adding a model
When we add a Kubernetes cluster to Juju we effectively have two clouds being managed by one controller. For us, they are named ‘aws’ and ‘k8s-cloud’. So when we want to create a model we’ll need explicitly state which cloud to place the new model in. We’ll do this now by adding a model called ‘k8s-model’ to cloud ‘k8s-cloud’:
juju add-model k8s-model k8s-cloud
Dynamic persistent volumes
As opposed to static Kubernetes persistent volumes, dynamic PVs do not need to be created in advance. They will be created on an as-needed basis by the cluster. This is generally the preferred method.
Tutorial Setting up static Kubernetes storage shows how to set up static PVs and includes information on how to inspect a cluster and its various objects using the
Creating Juju storage pools
The storage pool name for operator storage must be called ‘operator-storage’ while the pool name for workload storage is arbitrary. Here, our charm has storage requirements so we’ll need a pool for it. We’ll call it ‘k8s-pool’. It is this workload storage pool that will be used at charm deployment time.
For dynamic AWS volumes, the Kubernetes provisioner is
kubernetes.io/aws-ebs. We will also request a general purpose SSD drive by passing the
Our two storage pools are therefore created like this:
juju create-storage-pool operator-storage kubernetes \ storage-class=juju-operator-storage \ storage-provisioner=kubernetes.io/aws-ebs parameters.type=gp2
juju create-storage-pool k8s-pool kubernetes \ storage-class=juju-unit-storage \ storage-provisioner=kubernetes.io/aws-ebs parameters.type=gp2
Deploying a Kubernetes charm
We can now deploy a Kubernetes charm. For example, here we deploy a charm by requesting the use of the ‘k8s-pool’ workload storage pool we just set up:
juju deploy cs:~juju/gitlab-k8s juju deploy cs:~juju/mariadb-k8s --storage database=k8s-pool,10M juju add-relation gitlab-k8s mariadb-k8s
The output to
juju status should soon look similar to this:
Model Controller Cloud/Region Version SLA Timestamp k8s-model aws k8s-cloud 2.5.0 unsupported 18:57:16Z App Version Status Scale Charm Store Rev OS Address Notes gitlab-k8s active 1 gitlab-k8s jujucharms 0 kubernetes 10.152.183.184 mariadb-k8s active 1 mariadb-k8s jujucharms 0 kubernetes 10.152.183.221 Unit Workload Agent Address Ports Message gitlab-k8s/0* active idle 10.1.11.14 80/TCP mariadb-k8s/0* active idle 10.1.11.13 3306/TCP
Congratulations, you deployed a Kubernetes workload using dynamically provisioned volumes through the use of the AWS integrator charm!
Removing configuration and software
To remove all traces of Kubernetes and its configuration follow these steps:
juju destroy-model -y --destroy-storage k8s-model juju remove-k8s k8s-cloud rm -rf ~/.kube
This leaves us with Juju installed as well as an AWS controller. To remove even those things proceed as follows:
juju destroy-controller -y --destroy-all-models aws-k8s sudo snap remove juju
Consider the following tutorials:
- Setting up static Kubernetes storage
- Using Juju with MicroK8s
- Multi-cloud controller with GKE and auto-configured storage
- Installing Kubernetes with CDK and using auto-configured storage
To gain experience with a standalone (non-Juju) MicroK8s installation check out Ubuntu tutorial Install a local Kubernetes with MicroK8s.