Relations provide a means to integrate applications and enable a simple communications channel. The definitions of relations are handled through interfaces, which are “loosely typed”, meaning there is no de-facto specification for:

  • What information a relation must send/receive
  • What actions are to be taken with data sent/received over the wire

While there is no formal specification, it is important to carefully consider the interface you present. Relations are formed based on interface name only. For relations to work effectively, the same data format needs to be set/observed on either side of the relation.

Defining relations

Relations between different applications are defined in a charm’s metadata.yaml using the provides and requires keywords. Relations between multiple units of the same application are defined using the peers keyword.

Entries under the provides key define services/interfaces that the charm provides to other applications, those under the requires keyword define services/interfaces that the charm consumes from others. Despite their name, requires relations are not always essential for the application to function - charm authors can indicate optionality in the metadata (see table below)…

Each relation defined under provides or requires is defined as a YAML map, where the top-level key is the name of the relation. The map’s key/value pairs define the options for the relation. There are four options defined in the metadata spec:

Field Type Default Required? Description
interface string yes Name of the relation interface
limit int nil no Maximum number of connections permitted to endpoint
optional bool false no True if the relation is optional for the charm deployment. This field is ignored by Juju, and is used to indicate optionality to administrators.
scope string global no Scope of the relation. Options are global or container. This option controls the set of units from related applications that are reported to the unit as members of the relation

Container-scoped relations are restricted to reporting details of a single principal unit to a single subordinate, and vice versa, while global relations consider all possible remote units.

Subordinate charms are only valid if they have at least one requires relation with container scope.

Example relationship definitions can be seen below, for example a database might specify:

name: charm-db
# ...
    interface: charm-db

And a simple web application might specify:

name: my-web-app
# ...
    interface: charm-db
    limit: 1
    interface: http
    optional: true

Together, these two metadata.yaml snippets indicate that a relation can be formed between the two respective charms. The database charm provides a relation named database with the charm-db interface, and similarly the web app charm requires a relationship named database with the charm-db interface.

Note that the distinction between interface name and relation name enables developers to specify a name for the relation that makes the most sense in the context of their charm (which may be different from the name provided by the charm on the other end of the relation), while ensuring that the two are compatible where the interface name is the same. Using the above example, the database charm author could replace the name of the relation with charm-db, but the application charm would still be compatible, as the interface names remain the same.

Peer relations

Charms can declare peer relations, which causes each unit of an application to respond to the other units deployed in the same application. A peer relation is defined in exactly the same way as any other relation. For example, our fictional database could define a replicas relation, with the interface charm-db-replica

    interface: charm-db-replica

Peering relations are particularly useful when your application supports clustering. Consider the implications of operating applications such as MongoDB, PostgreSQL, and ElasticSearch where clusters must exchange information amongst one another to perform proper clustering. Peer relations can be useful for coordinating operations against a clustered application without downtime - for example upgrading package versions or applying new configuration. Additionally, forming a peer relation is the only way to obtain a reliable IP address from other pods deployed for the same application, though this may be less relevant depending on the underlying substrate. This information is populated automatically for each unit using an implicit relation.

Relation and interface naming

The relation namespace is unrestricted with the exception that you may not provide a relation named juju, nor have its name begin with juju-. Charms attempting to provide relations in this namespace will trigger an error.

Interface names are strings that must only contain characters a-z and -. Names must not start with -. The interface name is the only means of establishing whether two charms are compatible for relation; and carries with it nothing more than a mutual promise that the provider and requirer somehow know the communication protocol implied by the name.

Implicit relations

Implicit relations allow for simple relations to be formed without requiring any modifications to target charms. Implicit relations exist in the reserved namespace. There is currently only one such relation provided to all deployed applications: juju-info.

The juju-info relation captures very select data from the remote unit:

  • private-address
  • public-address

A common use for this type of relation is when authoring a subordinate charm that can be related to any other charm - in this case the juju-info implicit relation can be used. For example, the rsyslog-forwarder charm is a subordinate charm that requires a valid scope: container relationship named logging. In the event that the principal charm doesn’t provide this, the logging charm author can use juju-info:

    interface: logging-directory
    scope: container
    interface: juju-info
    scope: container

The administrator can then issue the following command:

juju add-relation some-app rsyslog-forwarder

If the some-app charm author doesn’t define the logging-directory interface which would configure the principal charm to log files into a directory, Juju will use the less-specific juju-info interface to create a config that configures the principal charm to forward syslog to the IP of the related application (using the information available from the juju-info implicit relation).

Relation events

Defining relationships is only the first step; for relations to be useful charm developers must implement handlers for the various events triggered by relations, and ensure they implement the advertised interface.

Event types

The CharmBase class automatically defines 5 events per specified relation (where <name> is the name of the relation).

Event name Event Type Description
<name>_relation_created RelationCreatedEvent Triggered when a new relation is created. This can occur before applications have started.
<name>_relation_joined RelationJoinedEvent Triggered when a new unit joins a relation. This event only fires when the remote unit is first observed by the unit.

Callback methods bound to this event may set any settings that can be determined by only using the joining unit’s name and the remote private-address setting.
<name>_relation_changed RelationChangedEvent Triggered whenever there is a change to the relation data.

This event is triggered whenever there is a change to the data bucket for a related application or unit. Look at[event.unit] or[]to see the new information, where event is the event object passed to the callback method.

This event always fires once, after RelationJoinedEvent, and will subsequently fire whenever that remote unit changes its settings for the relation.

Callback methods bound to this event should be the only ones that rely on remote relation settings. They should not error if the settings are incomplete, since it can be guaranteed that when the remote unit or application changes its settings, the event will fire again.

The settings that may be queried, or set, are determined by the relation’s interface.
<name>_relation_departed RelationDepartedEvent Triggered when a unit leaves a relation.

This is the inverse of the RelationJoinedEvent, representing when a unit is leaving the relation (the unit is being removed, the app is being removed, the relation is being removed). It is fired once for each unit that is leaving.

When the remote unit is known to be leaving the relation, this will result in the RelationChangedEvent firing at least once, after which the RelationDepartedEvent will fire once, no further RelationChangedEvents will fire following this.

Callback methods bound to this event may be used to remove all references to the departing remote unit, because there’s no guarantee that it’s still part of the system; it’s perfectly probable (although not guaranteed) that the system running that unit has already shut down.

Once all callback methods bound to this event have been run for such a relation, the unit agent will fire the RelationBrokenEvent.
<name>_relation_broken RelationBrokenEvent Triggered when a relation is removed.

If a relation is being removed (juju remove-relation or juju remove-application), once all the units have been removed, this event will fire to signal that the relationship has been fully terminated.

The event indicates that the current relation is no longer valid, and that the charm’s software must be configured as though the relation had never existed. It will only be called after every callback method bound to RelationDepartedEvent has been run. If a callback method bound to this event is being executed, it is guaranteed that no remote units are currently known locally.

Relation data

The primary means for applications to communicate over a relation is using “relation data”. This is exposed to the charm as a property of the event passed to the relevant callbacks. All relation events inherit from the RelationEvent class, which encapsulates the relevant Relation at <event>.relation. The Relation includes a data parameter of type RelationData which is a mapping containing all relation data stored by participating applications and units.

Relation data comprises a number of “buckets”. Each application and each unit has its own data bucket, which is a Python mapping. There are some rules about accessing relation data:

  • Units can read and write their own unit buckets (e.g.[self.unit])
  • Units can read from any other unit buckets (e.g.[event.unit])
  • Application leaders can read and write their application buckets (e.g.[])
  • Non-leaders can read from other application buckets (e.g.[])

Data stored in a RelationData mapping must be of type string

The framework also provides a mechanism for a charm author to fetch a relation from the model by name or ID. This can be useful in cases where methods (that are not relation event callbacks) need to access relation data. An example of this might be updating application data on a peer relation in the leader-elected event callback. Details of this method are documented in the API docs, and it is used in context in the examples provided. Where there are multiple relations present for a single relation name, the get_relation method takes an id of the relation to fetch. In these cases it may be easier to iterate over the relations property of the model, which returns a Mapping of all relations.


Requires/provides relation example

Here we will construct a trivial example of a relation to bring these concepts to life.

For a given metadata.yaml:

    interface: demo

We could implement the following callback for the demo_relation_changed event:

# ...
class SpecialCharm(CharmBase):
    # Set up some stored state in a private class variable
    _stored = StoredState()

    def __init__(self, *args):
        # ...
        # Relation handling
        self.framework.observe(self.on.demo_relation_changed, self._on_demo_relation_changed)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.demo_relation_broken, self._on_demo_relation_broken)
        # Initialise our stored state

    def _on_demo_relation_changed(self, event: RelationChangedEvent) -> None:
        # Do nothing if we're not the leader
        if not self.unit.is_leader():

        # Check if the remote unit has set the 'leader-uuid' field in the
        # application data bucket
        leader_uuid =[].get("leader-uuid")
        # Store some data from the relation in local state
        self._stored.apps.update({ {"leader_uuid": leader_uuid}})

        # Fetch data from the unit data bag if available
        if event.unit:
            unit_field =[event.unit].get("special-field")
  "Got data in the unit bag from the relation: %s", unit_field)

        # Set some application data for the remote application
        # to consume. We can do this because we're the leader[].update({"token": f"{uuid4()}"})

        # Do something

    def _on_demo_relation_broken(self, event: RelationBrokenEvent) -> None:
        # Remove the unit data from local state
        self._stored.apps.pop(, None)
        # Do something
# ...

From the example above, note:

  • The callback will only run if the current unit is the application leader.
  • The callback gets some application data from the remote unit, and stores it locally in state.
  • It fetches unit data from the remote unit that joined the relation.
  • It sets some application data for itself, to be consumed by the remote application.

A corresponding application that could relate to this could specify the following metadata.yaml:

    interface: demo

And the following relation event callback which:

  • Sets some application data for the local application, if the unit is the leader
  • Sets some unit data, containing just the unit’s name
  • Fetches some application data from the remote application and stores it in state
def _on_demo_relation_changed(self, event: RelationChangedEvent) -> None:
        # If we're the current leader
        if self.unit.is_leader():
            # Set a field in the application data bucket
  [].update({"leader-uuid": self._stored.uuid})

        # Set a field in the unit data bucket[self.unit].update({"special-field":})
        # Log if we've received data over the relation
        if self._stored.token == "":
  "Got a new token from '%s'",
            # Get some info from the relation and store it in state
            self._stored.token =[].get("token")

Peer relation example

This example illustrates a trivial peer relation, where the events can be observed using juju debug-log. The logging from the charm will demonstrate how each charm is notified of peers leaving/joining, and how the relation data is eventually consistent between units.

The basic premise behind this example is a simple clustered application that needs to present a single “master IP address” to another relation. Using the peer relation and the concept of application leadership, the IP address of the current leader is stored in the application data bucket on the peer relation, and cached locally into state on each of the followers. If a new leader is elected, the peer relation is fetched from the model and the application data stored on the peer relation is updated - triggering each of the other peers to update their local state.

The metadata.yaml for the example below contains the following:

    interface: charm-replica

And in the charm code:

# ...
class DemoCharm(CharmBase):
    """Charm the service."""

    _stored = StoredState()

    def __init__(self, *args):
        # ...
        self.framework.observe(self.on.leader_elected, self._on_leader_elected)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.replicas_relation_joined, self._on_replicas_relation_joined)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.replicas_relation_departed, self._on_replicas_relation_departed)
        self.framework.observe(self.on.replicas_relation_changed, self._on_replicas_relation_changed)

        # ...

    def _on_leader_elected(self, event: LeaderElectedEvent) -> None:
        """Handle the leader-elected event"""
        logging.debug("Leader %s setting some data!",
        # Get the peer relation object
        peer_relation = self.model.get_relation("replicas")
        # Get the bind address from the juju model
        # Convert to string as relation data must always be a string
        ip = str(self.model.get_binding(peer_relation).network.bind_address)
        # Update some data to trigger a replicas_relation_changed event[].update({"leader-ip": ip})

    def _on_replicas_relation_joined(self, event: RelationJoinedEvent) -> None:
        """Handle relation-joined event for the replicas relation"""
        logger.debug("Hello from %s to %s",,

        # Check if we're the leader
        if self.unit.is_leader():
            # Get the bind address from the juju model
            ip = str(self.model.get_binding(event.relation).network.bind_address)
            logging.debug("Leader %s setting some data!",
  [].update({"leader-ip": ip})

        # Update our unit data bucket in the relation[self.unit].update({"unit-data":})

    def _on_replicas_relation_departed(self, event: RelationDepartedEvent) -> None:
        """Handle relation-departed event for the replicas relation"""
        logger.debug("Goodbye from %s to %s",,

    def _on_replicas_relation_changed(self, event: RelationChangedEvent) -> None:
        """Handle relation-changed event for the replicas relation"""
        logging.debug("Unit %s can see the following data: %s",,
        # Fetch an item from the application data bucket
        leader_ip_value =[].get("leader-ip")
        # Store the latest copy locally in our state store
        if leader_ip_value and leader_ip_value != self._stored.leader_ip:
            self._stored.leader_ip = leader_ip_value

if __name__ == "__main__":
# ...

To illustrate how these events play out, open a separate terminal and run juju debug-log. Use the Juju CLI to add units to the charm, observing the events in the debug log, then remove them and see the reverse.

Testing relations

Relations are fundamental to Juju’s model-driven approach, and therefore they should be tested rigorously to ensure they behave as expected, and that charms present the right interfaces to other charms.

Harness provides a number of methods to aid testing relations, which are demonstrated below:

# ...
harness = Harness(MyCharm)
# Do initial setup here - note that adding a relation does not trigger any events
# in the context of Harness. While this differs from Juju, it makes testing simpler
# It takes the relation name, and remote application as arguments
relation_id = harness.add_relation('db', 'postgresql')
# This will trigger a relation-joined event, it takes the relation id,
# and name of the unit to join to the relation
harness.add_relation_unit(relation_id, 'postgresql/0')
# This method both updates the relation data, and triggers a relation-changed event
# This takes the relation id, name of the application or unit, and a value
harness.update_relation_data(relation_id, 'postgresql/0', {'key': 'val'})
harness.update_config({'initial': 'config'})
# Trigger the same events Juju would when deploying/installing charm.

# Specifically here: install, db-relation-created('postgresql'), leader-elected, config-changed, start, db-relation-joined('postgresql/0'), db-relation-changed('postgresql/0')
# ...

The final method regarding relation testing is get_relation_data() which returns the relation data bucket for a given application or unit. Example usage:

# ...
self.assertEqual(self.harness.get_relation_data(relation_id, "postgresql/0"), {
    "hostname": "dbhost",
    "port": "4444",
    "user": "charmuser",
    "pass": "supersecret"
# ...

Note that when calling get_relation_data or update_relation_data you are able to read/write relation data for both the charm being tested, but also the ‘remote’ charm in the relation. This is essential to ensure that your charm responds to remote changes in relation data correctly, though can become difficult where interfaces are complicated or subject to change (perhaps during development).

In both cases, the get_relation_data and update_relation_data take an argument to specify which charm is having it’s data read or changed - even though one or more of those charms may be entirely simulated due to the nature of Harness.